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Walnuts are revered since ancient times as a symbol of intellectuality, since their kernels have convoluted surface inside the shell resembling as that of brain.

They have got much attention in these days as they are enriched with many health-benefiting nutrients, especially Ω-3 fatty acids that are essential for optimum health.

Nearly 2.15 lakh people are directly or indirectly involve with walnut industry in the India.

Walnut (English or Persian Walnut)
Genus Juglans
Species regia
Family Juglandaceae
2n 32
Origin North Western Himalayas
Plant type Monoecious
Fruit Nut
Constituent Quantity/100g
Water 3.5
Protein 14.8
Carbohydrate 15.8
Fat 64.8
Fibre 2.1
Ash 1.9
Calcium 99 mg
Iron 3.1 mg
Magnesium 131 mg
Phosphorous 380 mg
Potassium 450 mg

Walnuts Varieties Of India

Jammu & Kashmir : Lake English, Drainovsky and Opex Caulchry ,CITH 1 to CITH 10, Bhusan (Gl0109)

Himachal Pradesh : Gobind, Eureka, Placentia, Wilson, Franquetfe And Kashmir Budded

Uttarakhand : Chakrata Selection, JSR 1504 (Selection)

S. No Name of the variety Net weight (g) S. No. Name of the variety Net weight (g)
1. Chandler 13.2 9. Sexton 15.6
2. Fernette 14.9 10. Solano 14.6
3 Forde 15.5 11. Sunland 17.9
4 Gillet 15.2 12. Tehama 14.1
5 Howard 14.3 13. Tulare 14.1
6 Ivanhoe 12.8 14. Vina 12.6
7 Payne 12.9 15. Serr 14.4
8 Robert Livermore 12.9 16.
Lateral bearing habit of wallnut
Lara variety of walnut at Nauni (Solan)
Fruiting of wallnut at Galhar, Kishtwar , Jammu

Characteristics of Lateral Bearing walnut varieties


  • Bears mostly on Laterals
  • Mid season variety
  • Precocious and heavy bearer
  • Nuts are large, round and well sealed


  • Bears exclusively on laterals
  • Precocious with very high yields
  • Resistant to blight
  • Nuts are smooth, round, good shell seal
  • Light kernels shell out easily


  • Precocious and bears heavily even on young trees
  • It is an exclusively lateral bearer variety
  • Nuts well sealed and have light kernels that are large and easy to remove
  • It is resistant to blight


  • Fruits exclusively on laterals
  • Precocious and high yielder
  • Resistant to blight
  • Nuts are large, well sealed and have light kernels


Walnut matures 2-3 weeks prior to hull dehiscence

Should be harvested prior to shuck split when the seed coat is a light tan colour (market preference)


In India most of the Harvesting is organised manualy by climbing on the tree or by sticks

Dehulling of walnuts

Walnuts can be successfully and conveniently dehulled by giving a post harvest dip in a 500 ppm solution of ethephon. The fruits are heaped and kept undisturbed for 4-5 days. The hull starts loosening and readily separates out exposing the nut. The fruits treated by ethephon do not turn black.

Storage Of Walnut

The optimum temperature range of storage is 0 to 10° C and 50-65% relative humidity to maintain 4% moisture.

Walnut are stored in gunny bags in a ventilated room free from excess humidity.

The quality of nut meat deteriorates due to darkening and rancidity which are affected by air, moisture, heat and light.


Nut Categories

Paper shelled nuts- Very thin, splits at one end, not desirable

Thin shelled nut- Easy to crack, shelling percentage 45-50

Medium shelled- Shell neither too thin nor too thick, kernel recovery 32-35% preferred in International market

Medium shelled- Shell neither too thin nor too thick, kernel recovery 32-35% preferred in International market

Hard shelled nut- Usually small in size and difficult to crack, poor kernel recovery (<20%)

Nut And Kernel Quality

The nuts should be medium to large (12-18g) in size

The nuts should be light coloured and medium shelled

Nuts should be smooth and well sealed

High shelling percentage (50%)

Should separate easily from the shell

Kernel should have white or light coloured skin

Should have good taste and flavour

Average Nut Size should be 30mm

Possibilities of Development

Vegetatively propagated planting material

Reducing-Long juvenile period

Reducing-Large tree size

Availability of suitable rootstocks and superior scion varieties

Knowledge of cultural practices (Training, Pruning, Fertilization, irrigation etc.)

Technology & Information on Pollination

Harvesting and handling techniques

Technology & Information on processing and marketing

Knowledge & Information on Plant Protection techniques

Future Strategies

Extensive survey of walnut growing areas to identify promising strains with desirable traits.

Introduction of new varieties with lateral bearing habit. These varieties achieve fruit set more quickly and have an elevated level of productivity. Some of the lateral bearing cultivars that needs to be imported are Chandler, Chico, Gillet, Payne, Tulare, Fernor.

Production of sufficient planting material of improved varieties for supply to the orchardists.

Strengthening of research on the standardization of rootstock, training and pruning and harvesting stage for quality kernel production.

Strong coordination among different walnut growing states for exchange of germplasm to study their performance under different agro climate zones in the country.

Top working of inferior seedling trees with improved scion cultivars on a large scale.

Development of protocol for micro-propagation of walnut.

Multipilication and Promotions of best indigenous vairties / selcetions like bhusan (Gl0109) and JRS1504 (Selections).